Nói không với informal words là điều đầu tiên trong 10 yếu tố cần thiết để đạt điểm cao trong IELS Writing task 2 bạn cần chú ý. Dù cho có những từ về ngữ nghĩa thì giống nhau nhưng một từ sẽ được xếp vào informal còn một từ lại là formal. Đó là lí do chúng tôi chia mục từ vựng IELTS thành 2 mục nhỏ là từ vựng IELTS Speaking và từ vựng IELTS Writing và khi nói chúng ta sẽ sử dụng từ ngữ ít trang trọng hơn khi viết. Chúng ta đã có từ vựng chủ đề work trong Speaking, vậy cũng chủ đề này thì những từ thế nào là từ vựng formal nên sử dụng trong Writing task 2? Dưới đây sẽ là khá nhiều cụm từ vựng liên quan đến chủ đề lớn này nên sử dụng trong task 2 và được chia nhỏ thành các đề tài nhỏ để các bạn tiện theo dõi nhé!
– Innovation economy (noun phrase)
Meaning: An economy that puts innovation, technology, knowledge at the center
Vietnamese: Nền kinh tế tập trung vào sáng tạo, kĩ thuật và máy móc
– Hands-on knowledge = Practical knowledge (noun phrase)
Meaning: Skills that someone gets by doing or going through the experience, rather than just reading about
Vietnamese: Kiến thức thực hành
Example: The innovation economy today requires workers with skills and competence while in some countries, the schools either don’t have the necessary quality, or don’t provide the students with enough hands-on knowledge.
– Theoretical knowledge (noun phrase)
Meaning: Skills or information that is learnt through reading
Vietnamese: Kiến thức lý thuyết
Example: The redundancy of theoretical knowledge and the lack of practical skills is the main reason for low-qualified employees, which leads to unemployment.
– To lay off staffs (verb phrase)
Meaning: Dismiss staffs because there is no job for them to do
Vietnamese: Sa thải nhân viên vì không còn công việc cho họ làm
Example: More and more companies are laying off staffs and replace them with automated robots to cut cost.
– Job vacancies
Meaning: the supply of jobs available
Vietnamese: vị trí công việc còn trống
Example: The number of job vacancies cannot keep up with the increasing number of graduates due to the population explosion in many parts of world.
– Jobless (adj)
Vietnamese: thất nghiệp
– Unemployment benefit (noun phrase)
Meaning: A payment made by a government or labour union to an unemployed person
Vietnamese: Trợ cấp thất nghiệp
Example: A high unemployment rate causes economical stress on the society. Governments will have to help those who are jobless by giving them unemployment benefits, and this money will have to be paid by taxpayers.
– Commit delinquency (phrasal verb)
Vietnamese: phạm tội
Example: Unemployed youths are also more likely to commit delinquencies. A long period of being jobless may even lead them to drugs or more serious crimes.
– Practical knowledge (noun)
Meaning: knowledge concerned with the actual doing or use
Vietnamese: kiến thức thực tế
Example: A good education system is the most effective solution to reduce the unemployment rate. Schools should teach the students more practical knowledge, not only theoretical knowledge, to prepare them better for their jobs.
– Information technology (IT) (noun phrase)
Meaning: The study or use of computers or telecommunication systems for storing, retrieving and sending information
– Executive position (noun phrase)
Meaning: A senior managerial position in a company or organization
Vietnamese: Vị trí lãnh đạo, quản lí
Example: There should also be more focus on information technology and leadership education to prepare more students for high-level executive positions that will not be replaced by robots.
– Job/career fair (noun phrase)
Meaning: An event for companies and recruiters to present information to potential employees
Vietnamese: Ngày hội việc làm
– Recruitment website (noun phrase)
Vietnamese: Trang web tuyển dụng
Example: Governments and organisations can also play a part by organising job fairs or setting up recruitment websites to improve communication and make sure the right people can find the right job.
Staying in the same job for life
Benefits of staying in the same job
– Loyalty (noun)
Meaning: The quality of showing firm and constant support or following to someone
Vietnamese: Lòng trung thành
Example: Employees who stay in a company for a long time will be able to show their loyalty and experience.
– Promotion (noun)
Meaning: The action of putting someone in a higher position in a company
Vietnamese: Sự thăng chức
Example: Some employees will be rewarded with higher salaries, promotions or more responsibilities.
– Working condition (noun phrase)
Meaning: The state of salary, promotion… of the employees
Vietnamese: Điều kiện làm việc
– Colleague (noun)
Meaning: A person with whom one works in a company or business
Vietnamese: Đồng nghiệp
– To fit in (verb phrase)
Meaning: To get comfortable in a group or organisation
Vietnamese: Hoà nhập
Example: If the environment and working conditions in a company is suitable and an employee has deep bonds with colleagues, there is no reason for that employee to move to another company where he or she may not fit in.
Benefits of changing job regularly
– Nine-to-five job (noun phrase)
Meaning: A boring, repetitive job
Vietnamese: Công việc nhàm chán
– Climb the ladder (phrase)
Meaning: To move to higher positions in one’s career
Vietnamese: Thăng tiến trong sự nghiệp
Example: Sometimes, employees may be stuck in nine-to-five jobs in companies that don’t give them opportunities to climb the career ladder, or where the environment can be abusive.
Competition between older workers and younger workers
Old people have go to work
– Workforce (noun)
Meaning: Total number of people engaged in work in a country
Vietnamese: Nguồn nhân công
Example: There is still competition between older and younger workers as older people are still staying in the workforce.
– Pension (noun)
Meaning: A regular payment made during a person’s retirement
Vietnamese: Lương hưu
Example: Some elders are forced to work to support themselves as either they don’t have children or their children have abandoned them, and their pensions are not enough.
Solutions for working old people
– Nursing home (noun phrase)
Meaning: Specialised centre to take care of the elders
Vietnamese: Trại dưỡng lão
Example: Governments can also build more nursing homes and increase pensions to ensure that the elders don’t have to work to support themselves when they are already too old.
– Niche (noun)
Meaning: A specialised segment of the market for a particular kind of goods or services
Vietnamese: Một bộ phận ngành nghề riêng và đặc biệt
Example: One possible solution is to create separate niches for them. For example, the youth can be educated into working in technological jobs that they may be more familiar with, leaving certain labor jobs to older workers who only need to keep themselves physically active.
Salary or job satisfaction
Factors contributing to job satisfaction
– Pay (noun)
Meaning: the money that somebody gets for doing regular work
– Staff (noun)
Meaning: all the workers employed in an organization considered as a group
Vietnamese: nhân viên (luôn để số ít để chỉ tổng thể, nếu muốn chỉ một nhân viên, có thể dùng a member of staff hay employee)
Example: A pay alone is not sufficient to make staff
– Employee (noun)
Meaning: a person who is paid to work for somebody
Vietnamese: nhân viên
– Healthcare payment
Meaning: this refers to the case when an employee is supported financially to improve their health.
Vietnamese: chi trả cho việc chăm sóc y tế
Example: Indeed, a company need to offer its employees with good working conditions and benefits such as healthcare payment
– Job satisfaction (noun phrase)
Meaning: A feeling of fulfilment or enjoyment that a person derives from their job.
Vietnamese: Mức độ hài lòng với công việc
– To be promoted (verb phrase)
Meaning: To be moved up to a higher position in a company
Vietnamese: Được thăng chức
Example: Another major factor contributing to job satisfaction is whether an employee can use his strengths and talents in his job, and whether he gets opportunities to learn more, develop and be promoted.
– A higher cause (noun phrase)
Vietnamese: Một mục tiêu cao cả
Example: In particular, the employee must be able to feel that he is contributing to the society positively, or to a higher cause.
Why salary is important
– Wage (noun)
Vietnamese: Tiền lương
Example: Wages are important in choosing jobs purely because we all need money to survive.
– Pay the bills (verb phrase)
Meaning: To provide for daily needs such as water and electricity
Vietnamese: Trả tiền điện nước
Example: We cannot take a job that is paid too low because everyone has to pay the bills, and some people even have to support their families.
Why job satisfaction is important
– Productive (adj)
Meaning: Producing or able to produce large amounts of goods, crops, or other commodities.
Vietnamese: hiệu quả, năng suất
Example: For individuals, job satisfaction helps us become more productive in our work. When we love what we do, we can put more effort into the job.
– Turnover rate (noun phrase)
Meaning: The percentage of employees leaving a company
Vietnamese: Tỉ lệ nhân viên rời khỏi công ty
Example: For companies, it is important to keep employees happy as this will keep the turnover rate.
– To retain (verb)
Meaning: to keep
Vietnamese: giữ lại
Example: Retaining an employee means that companies can save a lot of money recruiting and training.
– Regulation (noun)
Meaning: A rule or directive given and maintained by an authority
Vietnamese: Luật lệ, quy định
Example: The government has its own planning regulations.
– To give (someone) the sack (verb phrase) (informal)
Meaning: To fire (someone)
Vietnamese: Sa thải ai đó
Example: Setting up your company allows you to be your own boss, and no one can give you the sack.
– Perk (noun)
Meaning: A benefit one is entitled to because of one’s job
Vietnamese: Quyền lợi công việc
Example: Another perk of self-employment is that you get to keep all the money you make.
– Fixed salary (noun phrase)
Vietnamese: Lương cứng
Example: This allows you the chance to earn much more than compared to a fixed salary, if you work hard enough.
– Take on responsibility (phrase)
Meaning: be responsible for something
Vietnamese: chịu trách nhiệm
Example: To set up your own company, you need to take on a lot of responsibility.
– Department (noun)
Meaning: A division in a large company or government
Vietnamese: Bộ phận của một công ty hay tổ chức
– Workload (noun)
Meaning: The amount of work to be done
Vietnamese: Khối lượng công việc
– Overwhelming (adjective)
Meaning: very great or very strong
Vietnamese: quá sức
Example: You have to act as all departments at once and the workload can be overwhelming.
– To start from zero (verb phrase)
Vietnamese: Bắt đầu từ đầu, từ con số 0
– Capital (noun)
Meaning: Wealth in the form of money, available for a purpose
Vietnamese: Số vốn
Meaning: Self – employment can also be risky. You have to start from zero, and without the necessary capital or knowledge, you or your company may not make it.
– Freelancer (noun)
Meaning: A person who is self-employed and is hired to do specific contracts
Vietnamese: Người làm việc tự túc và nhận hợp đồng thuê riêng
– Paid sick leave (noun phrase)
Vietnamese: Nghỉ làm có lương
– Bonus (noun)
Meaning: An extra amount of money one is paid for high achievements in work
Vietnamese: Tiền thưởng
Example: Freelancers don’t enjoy pensions, paid sick leave or bonuses.
– Work-life balance (noun phrase)
Meaning: Proper and effective prioritisation between work and lifestyle
Vietnamese: Sự cân bằng giữa cuộc sống và việc làm
Example: A poor work-life balance will have negative effects on both our family, social connections and work effectiveness.
– Workaholic (noun)
Meaning: A person who compulsively works excessively hard and long hours.
Vietnamese: người nghiện công việc
Example: Spending too much time at work as a workaholic will leave us with no time to maintain social and family contacts and relationship.
– Jeopardise (verb)
Meaning: Put someone or something in a position in which there is a danger of harm
Vietnamese: Gây nguy hiểm
Example: When our family life is jeopardised, we will face more stress and our work life will also be affected as we cannot concentrate on our tasks.
– To drop (something) (verb)
Meaning: Abandon or discontinue
Vietnamese: Bỏ, không theo đuổi nữa
Example: One possible solution is to rethink your tasks and drop activities that may not be beneficial.
– Outsource (verb)
Meaning: Obtain services by contract from an outside supplier
Vietnamese: Thuê thêm người làm từ ngoài
Example: For those in executive positions, this could mean outsourcing jobs to reduce the workload on yourself.
– Groom (verb)
Meaning: Prepare or train for a particular purpose
Vietnamese: Chuẩn bị cho một mục đích cụ thể
– To take over the family business (phrase)
Vietnamese: tiếp quản việc kinh doanh của gia đình
Example: Some children are groomed since young to take over the family business one day, and actual experiences are more important than education.
– To make a living (phrase)
Meaning: To earn enough money to survive
Vietnamese: Kiếm sống
Example: On the other hand, some children don’t have access to schools and thus have to make a living by any means possible.
– Exploit (verb)
Meaning: To make use of in an unfair way
Vietnamese: Lạm dụng
Example: Public programmes aimed at changing the perceptions that children can be exploited for work will also be necessary.
Qualifications and life experience
Why qualifications are important
– Qualification (noun)
Meaning: Official certificate for completing a course in university
Vietnamese: Bằng cấp
– In-depth knowledge (noun)
Meaning: the deep knowledge related to a particular field
Vietnamese: kiến thức chuyên sâu
Example: A good degree demonstrates that a person has a good academic background and has acquired the necessary skills and in-depth knowledge for a particular field.
– To persevere (verb)
Meaning: To continue with the course of action in the face of difficulties
Vietnamese: Nỗ lực vượt qua khó khăn
– Hardship (noun)
Vietnamese: Sự khó khăn
Example: To graduate from a course in university, one often has to persevere through a lot of hardships, not only academically, but also in social life and taking care of themselves.
– Recruiter (noun)
Meaning: A person whose job is to enlist or enrol people as employees, in the armed forces, or as members of an organization.
Vietnamese: nhà tuyển dụng
Example: While life experience needs time to prove, qualifications can give recruiters a more reliable and immediate evidence when choosing suitable staff for the company.
Why life experiences are important
– To stand out from the crowd (Idiom)
Vietnamese: Nổi bật giữa đám đông
Example: The number of graduates have increased so dramatically that nowadays to be able to stand out from the crowd, one needs to have work experience together with a degree.
– Professionalism (verb)
Meaning: The skill or competence expected from a professional
Vietnamese: Phong thái, phương thức làm việc chuyên nghiệp
Example: Real-life experience can teach a student many things that cannot be learnt in a university classroom, such as professionalism and social manners.
Blue-collar vs white-collar jobs
Positives of blue-collar jobs
– Emphasis (noun)
Meaning: Special importance or value given to something
Vietnamese: Sự nhấn mạnh
Example: As everybody places more and more emphasis on education of information technology, there is a shortage of manual labor and this needs to be addressed.
– Blue-collar jobs (noun phrase)
Meaning: Non-agriculture manual jobs
Vietnamese: Nghề nhân công, làm việc tay chân
Example: A job related to manual work or workers, particularly in industry.
– White-collar jobs (noun phrase)
Meaning: the jobs connected to work in offices
Vietnamese: công việc lao động trí óc
– Cognitive ability (noun phrase)
Meaning: A person’s ability to process thoughts and think critically
Vietnamese: Kĩ năng suy luận, suy nghĩ
Example: Not everyone has the cognitive ability to pursue higher education that can lead to a white – collar job. Some people are more suited to become manual labor.
Positives of white-collar jobs
– Well-paid (adj)
Meaning: Earning or providing good pay.
Vietnamese: lương cao
Example: White collar jobs are always more well-paid than blue collar ones. Sometimes, blue collar workers can’t even afford basic necessities for their lives.
– Perk (noun)
Meaning: A benefit to which one is entitled because of one’s job.
Vietnamese: lợi ích
Example: White collar workers enjoy many more perks such as high bonus, paid leaves or healthcare benefits.
Positives of vocational education
– Hands-on (adj)
Meaning: Involving or offering active participation rather than theory
Vietnamese: thực tế
Example: Vocational schools teach students more hands-on skills than theoretical knowledge. The job market today requires students with actual experience rather than just qualifications.
Negatives of vocational education
– Business acumen (noun phrase)
Meaning: The ability to make good judgements or quick decisions about business matters
Vietnamese: Kĩ năng kinh doanh
Example: More advanced knowledge or business acumen that can bring about a better paying job will still only be taught in traditional colleges.
– Prestigious (adjective)
Meaning: respected and admired as very important or of very high quality
Vietnamese: có uy tín, có thanh thế
Example: Vocational schools are less prestigious compared to universities.
– To disqualify (verb)
Meaning: Declare ineligible for a position or an office
Vietnamese: Loại bỏ vì không đủ trình độ cho một công việc hay vị trí
– To go up against (verb phrase)
Meaning: To fight against, to compete with
Vietnamese: Đối đầu với
Example: A student from a vocational school will likely be disqualified if he goes up against a university graduate for the same job.
Part-time and full-time jobs
Positives of part-time jobs
– Source of income (noun phrase)
Vietnamese: Nguồn thu nhập
Example: A part-time job can be an important source of income for people who are still going to school or have to take care of their children.
– Time-consuming (adjective)
Meaning: Consume a lot of time
Vietnamese: Tốn nhiều thời gian
Example: A part-time job is not time-consuming but still offers a salary.
– Cautious (adjective)
Meaning: Careful to avoid potential problems
Vietnamese: Cẩn thận, tránh vấn đề
– To brush up one’s resume (verb phrase)
Meaning: To add interesting and valuable experiences and skills into one’s resume to make it become more attractive
Vietnamese: Làm đẹp hồ sơ
Example: When companies are becoming more cautious about hiring young people, it is vital for applicants to get part time jobs in order to brush up their resume and to learn the necessary skills.
Positives of full-time jobs
– Stable (adjective)
Meaning: Firmly fixed, not likely to give way
Vietnamese: Ổn định
Example: It is more difficult for them to be fired, and they can always have a stable source of income.
– Get raises (phrase)
Meaning: get an increase in the money you are paid for the work you do
Vietnamese: được tăng lương
Example: There’s no distraction from other duties and we can concentrate solely on doing a good job. Thus, it is easier for us to get raises or promotions.
Như vậy trên đây là rất nhiều các từ vựng thuộc từng chủ đề nhỏ nằm trong topic Work and Jobs rồi đúng không nào. Các bạn hãy tham khảo thêm các đề thi Writing Task 2 của các năm gần đây để cùng luyện tập áp dụng các từ vừa học vào bài viết nhé.
Chúc các bạn học tốt!