Ôn thi IELTS Writing không chỉ ngày một ngày hai mà khá lên được mà cần cả một quá trình, nhiều bạn chạy đi học những cấu trúc ngữ pháp cao siêu để nâng band Grammar Range and Accuracy đến những cách phát triển ý rồi cấu trúc đoạn văn tốt…nhưng vẫn không thể nâng cao điểm số trung bình của mình một cách đáng kể với lý do “nghèo từ”.
Tiếp nối chuỗi các blogs từ vựng IELTS Writing Task 2, hôm nay Etrain sẽ gửi đến các bạn một số cụm từ vựng rất hay và bổ ích thuộc chủ đề Social Problems để các bạn tham khảo nhé.
Drug abuse and addiction in children
– Drug abuse (noun)
Meaning: The habitual taking of illegal drugs.
Vietnamese: lạm dụng ma túy
– Vulnerable (adjective)
Meaning: Exposed to the possibility of being attacked or harmed, either physically or emotionally
Vietnamese: Dễ bị tổn thương
Example: The first reason is the absence of adult supervision during childhood, which pushes the children in vulnerable situation to drug abuse.
– Peer (noun)
Meaning: A person who is the same age or has the same social position or the same abilities as other people in a group
Vietnamese: Bạn bè
Example: Secondly, the pressure from the youngsters’ peers leads them to a desire of proving themselves that they are an adult now
– Drug addict (noun)
Meaning: A person who is addicted to an illegal drug.
Vietnamese: người nghiện ngập
Example: If a child is surrounded by drug addicts, then it is verly likely that he or she may grow up becoming another addict.
– Set a good example (phrasal verb)
Meaning: To behave in a way that other people should copy
Vietnamese: Làm gương
Example: Initially, parents need to set a good example for their children to follow because they are the most influential people to them.
– Recreational activity (noun phrase)
Meaning: Leisure activity
Vietnamese: Hoạt động giải trí
– Illegal activity (noun phrase)
Meaning: Contrary to or forbidden by law, especially criminal law activity
Vietnamese: Hoạt động sai trái
Example: Secondly, school should provide children with both educational and recreational activities, helping them engaged in a healthy lifestyle and getting away from illegal activities.
Types of violence
– Physical violence (noun phrase)
Meaning: The act of hurting people by actions or objects
Vietnamese: Bạo lực thể chất
– Domestic violence (noun phrase)
Meaning: The act of hurting the family members
Vietnamese: Bạo lực gia đình
– Street violence (noun phrase)
Meaning: The act of fighting in the street
Vietnamese: Bạo lực đường phố
Example: Physical violence occurs when someone uses a part of their body or an object to control a person’s actions. It includes domestic and street violence.
– Sexual violence (noun phrase)
Meaning: The act of forcing somebody to have sex without permission
Vietnamese: Bạo lực tình dục
Example: Sexual violence occurs when a person is forced to unwillingly take part in sexual activity.
– Psychological violence (noun phrase)
Meaning: The act of hurting people by words or insults
Vietnamese: Bạo lực tinh thần
– Threat (noun)
Meaning: A statement of an intention to inflict pain, injury, damage, or other hostile action on someone in retribution for something done or not done
Vietnamese: Sự đe dọa
– Hurt (noun)
Meaning: Harm or pain
Vietnamese: tổn thương
Example: Psychological violence occurs when someone uses threats and causes fear in an individual to gain control. It brings the more long-lasting hurt than any kinds of violence ever.
– Sexist (adjective)
Meaning: Characterized by or showing prejudice, stereotyping, or discrimination, typically against women, on the basis of sex
Vietnamese: Thuộc về thành kiến giới tính
Example: Firstly, sexist problems in particular rural families in many countries, including Vietnam, is the main reason.
– Disrespect (noun)
Meaning: Lack of respect or courtesy
Vietnamese: Sự thiếu tôn trọng
– Underestimation (noun)
Meaning: A judgement or rough calculation that is unfavourable or too low
Vietnamese: Sự đánh giá thấp
Example: The disrespect and underestimation of women role leads to violence, especially domestic and sexual violence.
– Guidance (noun)
Meaning: Advice or information aimed at resolving a problem or difficulty, especially as given by someone in authority.
Vietnamese: sự hướng dẫn
Example: Secondly, it is the lack of educational guidance that is to blame. In some cases, people cannot adequately receive full knowledge of the consequences of their actions and behaviours, so they tend to hurt somebody else.
– Poverty (noun)
Meaning: The state of being extremely poor.
Vietnamese: nghèo đói
– Financial burden (noun phrase)
Meaning: The hardness or stress related to finance
Vietnamese: Gánh nặng tài chính
Example: Poverty is also an important factor which leads to violence. People, especially in poor regions, feel their financial burdens and such these difficulties lead to their violent behaviours to rescue themselves.
– Increase public awareness of (phrasal verb)
Vietnamese: nâng cao nhận thức cộng đồng
– Tackle (verb)
Meaning: Make determined efforts to deal with
Vietnamese: giải quyết
Example: Firstly, the authorities need to increase public awareness of the violence issue, let them hand in hand to tackle the problem.
– Educational base (noun phrase)
Meaning: The lowest part of education
Vietnamese: Nên tảng giáo dục
Example: Secondly, government should provide a full educational base for their residents because lack of knowledge is the root of this issue
– Living standard (noun phrase)
Meaning: The quality of housing, material comfort, and wealth experienced by an individual or group
Vietnamese: Mức sống
Example: Finally, a better living standard certainly releases them from violent behaviours, especially domestic violence.
– Poverty (noun)
Meaning: The state of being extremely poor
Vietnamese: Sự nghèo đói
– Sufficient education (noun phrase)
Meaning: The adequate education and training
Vietnamese: Sự giáo dục đầy đủ
Example: Education is the one which has enabled many people to overcome poverty, so poor countries are those who lack sufficient education among their population.
– Obstacle (noun)
Meaning: A thing that blocks one’s way or prevents or hinders progress.
Vietnamese: trở ngại
– Eradicate (verb)
Meaning: To destroy completely; put an end to
Vietnamese: Chấm dứt
Example: Moreover, the regions of the world that are vulnerable to catastrophic natural disasters as floods or droughts can be suffered from a significant obstacle to eradicating poverty.
– Devastate (verb)
Meaning: To destroy or ruin
Vietnamese: Phá hủy
– Economy status (noun phrase)
Meaning: A situation related to finance or money
Vietnamese: Tình trạng kinh tế
Example: For example, the effects of flooding in Bangladesh or the 2005 earthquake in Haiti devastated their economy status, which put them into poverty.
– Political instability (noun phrase)
Meaning: The state of being unstable in terms of governmet
Vietnamese: Bất ổn chính trị
Example: Finally, it is clear that war and political instability are the important reasons for poverty.
– Economic prosperity (noun phrase)
Meaning: The state of being successful and having a lot of money
Vietnamese: Sự thịnh vượng kinh tế
Example: Without the safety, stability and security, the economic prosperity and growth cannot be ensured, which leads to the poverty of the whole country.
– Basic knowledge (noun phrase)
Vietnamese: hiểu biết cơ bản
Example: Firstly, it is vital to provide equal education for all citizens to ensure that they are well-educated with and skills.
– Income (noun)
Meaning: Money received, especially on a regular basis, for work or through investments
Vietnamese: Thu nhập
Example: Secondly, creating jobs is a great way to reduce poverty. When people have jobs, they have income, and when people have income, they can more easily get themselves out of poverty.
– Transparency (noun)
Meaning: The condition of being transparent.
Vietnamese: sự minh bạch
– Mal money (noun phrase)
Meaning: The money received or given with bad aims
Vietnamese: Tiền xấu
Example: Finally, creating transparency in government spending of money can help reduce corruption in governments, which avoids mal money and stop poverty among citizens.
– Unemployment (noun)
Meaning: The state of being unemployed
Vietnamese: Tình trạng thất nghiệp
– Qualification (noun)
Meaning: An official record showing that you have finished a training course or have the necessary skills
Vietnamese: Bằng cấp
Example: Some people are unable to find a job because they may not have the sufficient level of education or qualifications.
– Finance (verb)
Meaning: To provide money
Vietnamese: Hỗ trợ tài chính
Example: In many cases, people from poor backgrounds lack money to finance their education and therefore drop out of school, which leads to unemployment in the future.
– To be out of work (adjective)
Meaning: To be unemployed
Vietnamese: Thất nghiệp
– Job satisfaction (noun phrase)
Meaning: A feeling of fulfilment or enjoyment that a person derives from their job
Vietnamese: Sự hài lòng trong công việc
Example: The second reason is that some are out of work since their job satisfaction is too high and they cannot find a company or an organization that meet their own demands
– Supply and demand (noun phrase)
Meaning: The idea that something depends on how much of something else is being sold and how many people want it
Vietnamese: Cung và cầu
– Labour market (noun phrase)
Meaning: The availability of employment and labour, in terms of supply and demand.
Vietnamese: Thị trường lao động
Example: Finally, unemployment also stems from the imbalance between the supply and demand of workers on the labour market, so there are not enough employment given.
– Job placement (verb)
Meaning: The action of placing someone in job
Vietnamese: Sự sắp xếp việc làm
Example: Job placement can be applied in some companies or schools to provide more skills and experience for graduates to help them gain more knowledge and practical skills for jobs later.
– Vocational course (noun phrase)
Meaning: The education related to an occupation.
Vietnamese: Khóa học nghề nghiệp
– Technique training (noun phrase)
Meaning: The training related to skills
Vietnamese: Sự đào tạo kỹ thuật
Example: Secondly, government should provide more vocational courses and technique training to equip the employees with such skills to make them employable in a labor market.
– Loan (noun)
Meaning: A thing that is borrowed, especially a sum of money that is expected to be paid back with interest
Vietnamese: Tiền vay
Example: The government should also make it easier for students to access loans to pay for their education. In this way, more people will be able to go to school and learn important skills to avoid unemployment.
– Medical technology (noun phrase)
Vietnamese: công nghệ y học
Example: Advancement in medical technologies is perhaps the biggest reason for overpopulation.
– Illness (noun)
Meaning: A disease or period of sickness affecting the body or mind
Vietnamese: Bệnh tật
– Rate of birth (or birth rate) (noun phrase)
Meaning: The number of live births per thousand of population per year
Vietnamese: Tỷ lệ sinh
– Rate of death (or death rate) (noun phrase)
Meaning: The ratio of deaths to the population of a particular area or during a particular period of time
Vietnamese: Tỷ lệ tử
Example: Medical science made many discoveries, which leads to a situation that illnesses are cured much better than in the past, resulting in the higher rate of birth than that of death.
– Family planning (noun phrase)
Meaning: The practice of controlling the number of children one has and the intervals between their births, particularly by means of contraception or voluntary sterilization.
Vietnamese: Kế hoạch hóa gia đình
Example: The second reason is about lack of basic knowledge of family planning.
– Overpopulation (noun)
Meaning: The condition of being populated with excessively large numbers.
Vietnamese: Dân số quá đông
– Family planning measure (noun phrase)
Meaning: The method which controls the number of children in a family
Vietnamese: Phương pháp kế hoạch hóa gia đình
Example: Getting children married at an early age can increase the chances of producing more kids. Those people are unable to understand the harmful effects of overpopulation and lack of quality education prompts them to avoid family planning measures.
– Curb (verb)
Meaning: To limit
Vietnamese: Hạn chế
Example: Raising awareness among people regarding family planning and letting them know about serious after effects of overpopulation can help curb population growth.
– Contraceptive (noun)
Meaning: A device or drug serving to prevent pregnancy
Vietnamese: Sự phòng tránh thai
– Unwanted pregnancy (noun phrase)
Meaning: Not desired bearing babies
Vietnamese: Mang thai ngoài ý muốn
Example: For example, the authorities need to let them know about various safe sex techniques and contraceptives methods available to avoid any unwanted pregnancy.
– Sex education (noun phrase)
Meaning: The acknowledgement of sex
Vietnamese: Giáo dục giới tính
Example: Imparting sex education to young kids at elementary level should be must to avoid the negative consequences later.
The widening gap between the rich and the poor
– Disparity (noun)
Meaning: A great difference
Vietnamese: Sự khác biệt
Example: Firstly, the disparity in terms of education between the rich and poor is the main reason.
– Illiteracy (noun)
Meaning: The inability to read or write
Vietnamese: Sự mù chữ
– Low-waged (adjective)
Meaning: Under paid
Vietnamese: Lương thấp
– Well-paid (adjective)
Meaning: Earning or providing good pay
Vietnamese: Lương cao
Example: The poor often lack of education, which leads to the high rate of illiteracy and low-waged jobs. In contrast, the wealthy have full training which helps them have a well-paid job in the future.
– Low class (noun)
Meaning: a low or inferior standard, quality, or social class.
Vietnamese: tầng lớp thấp
– Gap (noun)
Meaning: A difference
Vietnamese: Khoảng cách
– Inequality (noun)
Meaning: Difference in size, degree, circumstances, lack of equality.
Vietnamese: sự bất bình đẳng
Example: Secondly, the neglect of the government about low class widens this gap. The poor do not receive enough supports which are vital for daily basic needs in terms of accommodation, food, transportation and job opportunities, which leads to the huge inequality.
– Low-income (adjective)
Meaning: Relating or belonging to people who earn low wages
Vietnamese: Thu nhập thấp
Example: Firstly, government should provide financial support for people who are living under comfortable financial circumstances. They need to ensure that the low-income citizens have the minimum wage to live on.
– Narrow (verb)
Meaning: Become or make less wide
Vietnamese: Thu hẹp
Example: Developed countries should take more responsibility and to do lots of efforts for eradicate poverty from the world and narrow the gap between the rich and poor to create an equal world.
Poor public services
– Public service (noun phrase)
Meaning: The civil service
Vietnamese: Dịch vụ công cộng
Example: The first reason for the poor public services is about the employees. They are not fully trained for the job which leads to a lack of knowledge of their products.
– Accomplish (verb)
Meaning: Achieve or complete successfully
Vietnamese: Hoàn thành
Example: As a result, they cannot accomplish their roles towards the companies or organizations.
– Incentive (noun)
Meaning: A thing that motivates or encourages someone to do something
Vietnamese: Phần thưởng
– Motivation (noun)
Meaning: A reason or reasons for acting or behaving in a particular way.
Vietnamese: Động lực
Example: Secondly, the employees do not receive enough the incentives or salary, which is considered as not tied to their results of work. This leads to a lack of motivation at work.
– Dedicate (verb)
Meaning: Devote (time or effort) to a particular task or purpose
Vietnamese: Cống hiến/Dành
– Reinforcement (noun)
Meaning: The action or process of reinforcing or strengthening.
Vietnamese: sự củng cố
Example: Firstly, people need to dedicate resources (time and money) for training and reinforcement.
– Compensation (noun)
Meaning: Something, typically money, awarded to someone in recognition of loss, suffering, or injury.
Vietnamese: Tiền bồi thường
– Reinforce (verb)
Meaning: Strengthen or support (an object or substance), especially with additional material.
Vietnamese: Củng cố
Example: Secondly, it is urgent to realize that people are the key to success, therefore, a suitable salary or compensation and incentives can support the employees and reinforce the companies’ empowerment.
– Counseling (noun)
Meaning: The provision of professional assistance and guidance in resolving personal or psychological problems.
Vietnamese: Sự tư vấn
Example: Lastly, a clear communication with employees about their behaviours at work is necessary. Counseling or just listening to their problems may prevent more serious struggles.
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